[13], It is believed that "Tecun Uman" was more than likely not the ruler's name at all but may have functioned as a sort of title. After Alvarado’s death, the new viceroy of Mexico, Pedro de Mendoza, seized Alvarado’s fleet. [13] This theory is generally given little credence, in light of the observation that such documents as the Título K'oyoi appeared long before the first performances of the Baile de la Conquista. Once across, the conquistadors ransacked nearby settlements in an effort to terrorise the K'iche'. The cavalry scattered the K'iche' and the army crossed to the city of Xelaju (modern Quetzaltenango) only to find it deserted. Jose was born in 1825, in Malacatancito, Huehuetenango, Guatemala. The sun glyph of Tonatiuh is joined to him. The dance reenacts the invasion led by Alvarado and the conquest of Guatemala. Pedro de Alvarado (Badajoz, c. 1495 - Guadalajara, Mexico, July 4, 1541), was one of the Spanish leaders in the discovery and conquest of America. Sharer and Traxler 2006, p. 763. Matthew 2012, pp. The K'iche' prince's nahual, filled with grief, landed on the fallen hero's chest, staining its breast feathers red with blood, and thereafter died. He was the son of Diego Gómez de Alvarado y Mexía Sandoval y Porras, born in Badajoz in 1460, who was also the Commander of Lobón, Puebla, Montijo and Cubillana, Alcalde of Montanchez, Trece of the Order of Santiago, Lord of Castellanos, a Maestresala official instructor of Henry IV of Castile and Generalof the Frontier of Portugal. However, the letter is quite sparing in details, with Alvarado only mentioning of the battle that ensued: "in this affair one of the four chiefs of the city of Utatlán was killed, who was the captain general of all this country. Tecun Uman was one of the last rulers of the K'iche' Maya people, in the Highlands of what is now Guatemala. Pedro de Alvarado y Contreras (Badajoz, Extremadura, Spain, ca. It has therefore been suggested that the structure of the dance forced them to create a leader for the native armies, with Tecun Uman created specifically for that purpose. Pedro de Portocarrero married Alvarado's daughter Leanor, probably in early 1536. His body was buried at a local church in a village near Guadalajara, New Spain. He was known as one of the best soldiers among the Conquistadores, as well as one of the most cruel to the native populations. Alvarado was a Spanish conquistador and is famous for participating in expeditions throughout the Caribbean and Central America, including places such as: Cuba, Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras and El … Alvaradowent to the region of Mexico to help the Spanish during the Mixton War. In 1522 Hernán Cortés sent Mexican allies to scout the Soconusco region of lowland Chiapas, where they met delegations from Iximche and Q'umarkaj at Tuxpán;[2] both of the powerful highland Maya kingdoms declared their loyalty to the king of Spain. Died: 1541, in or near Guadalajara, New Spain (Mexico) Spouse (s): Francisca de la Cueva, Beatriz de la Cueva. It has been suggested that "umam" may have been a reference to his genealogy, or the name may have originally been derived from another title given to the hero, "q'uq'umam", meaning "ancient one of quetzal feathers", or it might have come from the indigenous name for a prominent local volcano: "Teyocuman. Pedro de Alvarado has the distinction of … The dance is known to have been performed throughout certain regions of colonial Latin America during a time when Catholic priests encouraged its use to aid them in the conversion of various native populations. Managed by: Private User Last Updated: December 9, 2016 The influence they had on the kingdoms they conquered, regarding culture and linguistics with much emphasis on linguistics. Lovell 2005, p. 58. Gender: Male Religion: Roman Catholic Race or Ethnicity: White Occupation: Military. Don Pedro de Alvarado was assigned the road going from Tacuba straight to Tlatelolco; Captain don Hernando Cortes positioned himself in Coyoacan and guarded the road going from Coyoacan to Mexico. Alvarado, Pedro de pā´ᵺrō dā älvärä´ᵺō , 1486–1541, Spanish conquistador. At great cost, he assembled and equipped 13 ships and approximately 550 soldiers for the expedition. [17], Tecun Uman was declared a National Hero of Guatemala on March 22, 1960 and is celebrated annually on February 20 for the bravery and dignity he demonstrated in opposition to the Spanish Conquistadors. Well known for his skills as a soldier, he also played major roles in the conquest of Cuba and in the conquest of Mexico led by Hernán Cortés. [10] Pedro de Alvarado, in his third letter to Hernán Cortés, describes the death of one of the four lords of Q'umarkaj upon the approach to Quetzaltenango. His actions led to the death of Montezuma.In 1524 Alvarado became governor and captain-general of Guatemala, and formed settlements on the coast of Honduras. In 1536, Portocarrero accompanied Alvarado to Honduras and fought against the Chontal Maya of the Naco valley, where an uprising against the Spanish was underway. They skirted the lake and came by Quauhtitlan as far as Tacuba, and there they divided themselves into captaincies and took up various stations. Alternate transliterations include Tecún Umán, Tecúm Umán, Tecúm Umam, Tekun Umam, etc. Print Collection portrait file. He was buried at the Santiago de los Caballeros de Guatemala cathedral. Animal Diversity - The Resplendent Quetzal, Authentic Maya: Tecun Uman, Pedro de Alvarado, and the Virgin Mary, Tecum Umam: ¿Personaje Mítico o Histórico? Pedro de Alvarado's mother was Diego's second wife, Leonor de Contreras y Gutiérrez de Trejo. Alvarado went to Santo Domingo in 1510 and in 1518 commanded one of Juan de Grijalba ’s ships sent from Cuba to explore the Yucatán Peninsula. The first-born son of the Keeper of the Mat (the most powerful of the lords) was expected to prove himself by leading the K'iche' army and was given the title "nima rajpop achij", the same title given to Tecun Uman in the Título K'oyoi. Ignore the dates and places of birth and death of Diego de Alvarado, as well as almost all aspects of his biography. When the Spaniards had temporarily to retire before the Mexican uprising, Alvarado led the rear-guard (1st of July 1520), and the Salto de Alvarado -- a long leap with the use of his spear, by which he saved his life -- became famous. Parents: Gómez de Alvarado, Leonor de Contreras. Many writers have told the story of this tragic massacre in May 1520, which led directly to the death of the Mexica emperor Motecuhzoma and to the flight of the Spanish forces from Tenochtitlan during the ‘Sad Night’. [7] Although the common view is that the K'iche' prince Tecun Uman died in the later battle near Olintepeque, the Spanish accounts are clear that at least one and possibly two of the lords of Q'umarkaj died in the fierce battles upon the initial approach to Quetzaltenango. Pedro had 7 siblings: Gavena Alvarado, Daniel Alvarado and 5 other siblings. Alvarado accompanied Hernán Cortés in the conquest of Mexico (1519–21). Born: c. 1495 Birthplace: Badajoz, Castile, Spain Died: 4-Jul-1541 Location of death: Nochistlan Peak, Mexico Cause of death: Accident - Fall. He is also memorialized in a poem by Miguel Ángel Asturias that bears his name. Pedro de Al­varado y Contreras (Bada­joz, Ex­tremadura, Spain, ca. [20], For the Association football (soccer) team initially named Tecún Umán, see. 40–41. The earliest recorded appearance of the name is in the Título C'oyoi in which he is referred to as "nima rajpop achij adelantado Tecum umam rey k'iche' don k'iq'ab'." [11], Another account claims a much more complex confrontation of religious and material forces. Pedro de Alvarado, (born c. 1485, Badajoz, Castile [Spain]—died 1541, in or near Guadalajara, New Spain [now in Mexico]), Spanish conquistador who helped conquer Mexico and Central America for Spain in the 16th century. [citation needed], In Guatemala, the dance recounts the early events of the conquest, centering on the confrontation between Tecun Uman and Pedro de Alvarado, which in turn serves as a symbol for the much larger conflict in which they were involved. One of the Spanish leaders in the discovery and conquest of America, born at Badajoz about 1495. Gall 1967, p. 41. [9], The legends relate that Tecun Uman entered battle adorned with precious quetzal feathers, and that his nahual (animal spirit guide), also a quetzal bird, accompanied him during the battle. The Baile de la Conquista commemorates the Spanish conquest, personified in Alvarado’s confrontation with Tecun Uman. – February 20, 1524) was one of the last rulers of the K'iche' Maya people, in the Highlands of what is now Guatemala. While he was gone, Pedro de Alvarado was left in charge of the Spanish’s mission in Tenochtitlan. Don Pedro de Alvarado : a portrait and images depicting his armor and death. "[13], The Guatemalan Baile de la Conquista ("Dance of the Conquest") is a traditional dance borrowing its structure from the Spanish Baile de los Moros ("Dance of the Moors"), which commemorates the expulsion of the Moors from Spain. [6] Alvarado then turned to head upriver into the Sierra Madre mountains towards the K'iche' heartlands, crossing the pass into the fertile valley of Quetzaltenango. Four decades later, his daughter Leonor arranged for his remains to be returned to Guatemala. The letter was dated 11 April 1524 and was written during his stay at Q'umarkaj. Upon learning he had killed only the beast and not the man, he had attempted to correct his mistake, but was quickly impaled by Alvarado's spear. Several other indigenous documents describe the arrival of Alvarado in what would become Guatemala, including the Título C'oyoi which describes the battle in terms similar to the modern legend. [18] Tecun Uman's namesakes include a small town in the department of San Marcos on the Guatemala-Mexico border as well as countless hotels, restaurants, and Spanish schools throughout Guatemala. 1485 or ca. Another version says he merely attacked the horse in an attempt to knock Alvarado down, having no prior illusion that both man and animal to be one and the same. Gall 1967, pp. 1485 – Guadalajara, New Spain, 4 July 1541) was a Spanish conquistador and governor of Guatemala. Other natives had attempted to kill Alvarado, but he was protected by a powerful maiden, commonly associated with the Virgin Mary. Pedro Alvarado passed away on month day 1979, at death place, Texas. As horses were not native to the Americas and peoples of Mesoamerica had no beasts of burden of their own, Tecun Uman assumed they were one being and killed Alvarado's horse. [3] But Cortés' allies in Soconusco soon informed him that the K'iche' and the Kaqchikel were not loyal, and were instead harassing Spain's allies in the region. 1485 – Guadalajara, New Spain, 4 July 1541) was a Spanish conquistador and governor of Guatemala. In February 1519 he accompanied Hernando Cortes in the expedition for the conquest of Mexico, being appointed to the command of one of the eleven vessels of the fleet. (SPANISH), PALABRA VIRTUAL: Tecun Uman, Miguel Ángel Asturias, CULTURAL SURVIVAL: Guatemala - Everybody's Indian When the Occasion's Right, Sociedad de Geografía e Historia de Guatemala, Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tecun_Uman&oldid=982233116, 16th-century indigenous people of the Americas, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2016, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 6 October 2020, at 22:28. Cousin, Spanish conquistador of the conquistadors Pedro and Jorge de Alvarado. "[15] Alvarado did not provide a name for the K'iche' general; nor did he mention how or by whose hand the man was killed. Further, if one is to be placed in captivity, it would die, making the quetzal a symbol of liberty. Nationality: Spain Executive summary: Spanish conqueror of … Born: c. 1495Birthplace: Badajoz, Castile, SpainDied: 4-Jul-1541Location of death: Nochistlan Peak, MexicoCause of death: Accident - Fall, Gender: MaleReligion: Roman CatholicRace or Ethnicity: WhiteOccupation: Military, Nationality: SpainExecutive summary: Spanish conqueror of Americas. Pedro Alvarado in 1930 United States Federal Census Pedro Alvarado was born circa 1921, at birth place, Texas, to Francesco Alvarado and Elvera V Alvarado. Translated, this phrase means: "great captain-general Tecum, grandson of the K'iche' king Don K'iqab'." Pedro de Alvarado. Cortés decided to despatch Pedro de Alvarado with 180 cavalry, 300 infantry, crossbows, muskets, 4 cannons, large amounts of ammunition and gunpowder, and thousands of allied Mexican warriors from Tlaxcala, Cholula and other cities in central Mexico;[4] they arrived in Soconusco in 1523. To fit the traditions of the Baile de los Moros, the role of the Moorish prince is replaced with that of Tecun Uman. Therefore, the word "uman" or "umam" simply means "grandson of" and is not part of Tecun's name at all. At the time of his death, he still held Sacatepéquez and Ostuncalco in encomienda. According to the Kaqchikel annals, he was slain by Spanish conquistador Pedro de Alvarado while waging battle against the Spanish and their allies on the approach to Quetzaltenango on 12 February 1524. Tecun Uman called upon his own magic, and in the intention of killing Alvarado, struck Alvarado's horse dead. Submit a correction or make a comment about this profile, Submit a correction or make a comment about this profile. [19] In contrast to his popularity, he is at times rejected by Maya cultural activists who consider his status as a national hero a source of irony, considering the long history of mistreatment of Guatemala's native population. Tecun Uman quickly realized his error and turned for a second attack but Alvarado's thrust his spear into his opponent's heart. Pedro de Alvarado's death in 1541, depicted in the indigenous Codex Telleriano-Remensis. Pedro de Alvarado y Contreras (born Badajoz, Extremadura, Spain, ca. He took part in the Invasions of the Aztecs, Maya and Inca. Tecun Uman has inspired a wide variety of activities ranging from the production of statues and poetry to the retelling of the legend in the form of folkloric dances to prayers. During a visit to Spain, three years later, he had the governorship of Honduras conferred upon him in addition to that of Guatemala. Pedro de Alvarado y Contreras (Badajoz, Extremadura, Spain, ca. Alvarado went to … Pedro de Alvarado was born in 1485 in the town of Badajoz, Extremadura. [3], Pedro de Alvarado and his army advanced along the Pacific coast unopposed until they reached the Samalá River in western Guatemala. Marriage and death. Cause of Death: Accident Pedro de Alvarado was a Spanish conquistador credited with the conquest of much of Central America, including Guatemala and El Salvador. In the midst of the battle, Alvarado and Tecun Uman met face to face, each with weapon in hand. The fleet was about to set sail in 1541 when Alvarado received a letter from Cristóbal de Oñate, pleading for help against hostile Indians who were besieging him at Nochistlán. He died in Guatemala in 1541. Recinos 1952, 1986, p. 65. The death of Alvarado in the Codex Telleriano-Remensis (16th century). [1] He participated in the conquest of Cuba, in Juan de Grijalva's exploration of the coasts of the Yucatán Peninsula and the Gulf of Mexico, and in the conquest of Mexico led by Hernán Cortés. Pedro de Alvarado y Contreras (Badajoz, Extremadura, Corona castellana, 1485 - Guadalajara, Virreinato de Nueva España, Imperio español, 4 de julio de 1541) fue un adelantado y conquistador español que participó en la conquista de Cuba, en la exploración por Juan de Grijalva del golfo de México y de las costas de Yucatán, y en la conquista del Imperio azteca dirigida por Hernán Cortés. According to the Kaqchikel annals, he was slain by Spanish conquistador Pedro de Alvarado while waging battle against the Spanish and their allies on the approach to Quetzaltenango on 12 February 1524. This is all tied together by the genealogy of the K'iche' lords that is given near the end of the Popul Vuh and a section of the Título de Totonicapan, which both refer to the son of the Keeper of the Mat as "Tecum" at the time of Alvarado's arrival. He passed away from the injuries on July 4, 1541. Despite this, Tecun Uman's existence is not well documented, and it has proven to be difficult to separate the man from the legend. [14], The true existence of a historical Tecun Uman is subject of ongoing debate. [citation needed], The Popol Vuh[16] confirms the observations of Bartolomé de las Casas and the Título de Totonicapán, which record that four lords ruled the K'iche' at the time of the Spanish conquest. Portocarrero died "of old age" before 1539. After the Spanish conquest of central Mexico, expeditions were sent further northward in Mesoamerica, to the … [5] On 8 February 1524 Alvarado's army fought a battle at Xetulul, called Zapotitlán by his Mexican allies (modern San Francisco Zapotitlán). A. Pedro de Alvarado. Díaz del Castillo 1632, 2005, p. 510. During the Spanish Conquest in the sixteenth Century, the Aztecs referred to the Spanish explorer and conquistador Pedro de Alvarado as Tonatiuh. During his time there, he was accidentally trampled by a horse. [8] The death of Tecun Uman is said to have taken place in the battle of El Pinar,[9] and local tradition has his death taking place on the Llanos de Urbina (Plains of Urbina), upon the approach to Quetzaltenango near the modern village of Cantel. Guerra de Cuzcatlán.png 1,000 × 1,333; 2.61 MB Pedro de Alvarado (Tomás Povedano).jpg 2,432 × 3,302; 3.82 MB Pedro de alvarado telleriano remensis.jpg 346 × 279; 25 KB 78-79. Pedro de Jesús Morales Alvarado was born on month day 1867, at birth place, to Jose Mariano Morales Molina and Luisa Josefa Morales Molina (born Alvarado Villatoro). The sun glyph of Tonatiuh is joined to him. His first … Although suffering many injuries inflicted by defending K'iche' archers, the Spanish and their allies stormed the town and set up camp in the marketplace. In 1530 Pedro sent Alvarado to set up a colony in present-day eastern El Salvador.On May 8, 1530 Alvarado founded the town of San Miguel de la Frontera in modern San Miguel Department. [13], Local folklore from the area around the former K'iche' capital of Q'umarkaj preserves the belief that he was buried at the small archaeological site of Atalaya, 600 metres (660 yd) from Q'umarkaj itself. This region formed a part of the K'iche' kingdom, and a K'iche' army tried unsuccessfully to prevent the Spanish from crossing the river. Alvarado, Pedro de (1485–1541) Spanish conquistador. Do you know something we don't? Tecun Uman was declared Guatemala's official national hero on March 22, 1960 and is commemorated on February 20, the popular anniversary of his death. [citation needed], A different version states Tecun Uman had an opportunity to kill Alvarado but ultimately failed and was slain by one of Alvarado's subordinates, a soldier known by the name of Argueta. 41–42. Known For: Conquest and enslavement of indigenous people of Mexico and Latin America. Alvarado was clad in armor and mounted on his warhorse. Fast Facts: Pedro de Alvarado. Most of the fleet was dispatched to the Philippine Islands commanded by Ruy Lopez de Villalobos. Tecun Uman was declared Guatemala's official national hero on March 22, 1960 and is … One piece of evidence to suggest he lived comes from a letter written by Alvarado to Hernán Cortés. He was engaged (1523-24) in the conquest of Guatemala, of which he was subsequently appointed governor by Charles V. In 1534 he attempted to bring the province of Quito under his power, but had to content himself with the exaction of a pecuniary indemnity for the expenses of the expedition. He went to Hispaniola (1510), sailed in the expedition (1518) of Juan de Grijalva, and was the chief lieutenant of Hernán Cortés in the conquest of Mexico. The glyph to the right of his head represents his Nahuatl name, Tonatiuh ("Sun"). Gall 1967, pp. Pedro de Alvarado: Birthdate: estimated between 1574 and 1634: Death: Immediate Family: Husband of Juana Muñoz Father of Isabel Muñoz de Alvarado and Juana Muñoz de Alvarado. 1485 – Guadala­jara, New Spain, 4 July 1541) was a Span­ish con­quis­ta­dor and gov­er­nor of Guatemala. Collection. 1495, died Guadalajara, New Spain, 4 July 1541) was a Spanish conquistador and governor of Guatemala. In AGI, Audiencia de Guatemala, Legajo 110, Probança hecha por el adelantado d. Pedro de Alvarado sobre las ropas de mantas que vendió en Peru (Santiago: 9 de octubre, 1536), he testified that he had sold Pizarro “ropas de manta” worth 2,000 ducats, and that Pizarro had never paid him. This suggestion is based on the claim of Argueta's descendants that the lance they keep as an heirloom of their predecessor is stained with the blood of the K'iche' hero. This document also contains the earliest known reference to the K'iche' leader as Tecum Umam. The Spanish colonization and the problems and resistance they faced, how they established a colony and joined it to the Vice Royalty of New Spain. Alvarado developed a plan to outfit an armada that would sail from the western coast of Mexico to China and the Spice Islands. [12] In this version Tecun Uman himself literally transformed into a quetzal or, in some variations, into an eagle adorned with three crowns - one of gold, one of diamonds and one of emeralds. Tecun Uman[1] (1500? He acted as Cortes's principal officer, and on the first occupation of the city of Mexico was left there in charge. Restall and Asselbergs 2007, p. 3. Pedro de Alvarado was a Spanish conquistador who participated in the conquest of much of Central America He held a command in the expedition sent from Cuba against Yucatan in the spring of 1518, and returned in a few months, bearing reports of the wealth and splendour of Montezuma's empire. From that day on, all male quetzals bear a scarlet breast and their song has not been heard since. Sharer and Traxler 2006, p. 764. Born: c. 1485, Badajoz, Castile, Spain. Sharer and Traxler 2006, p. 763. The prodigy of the successful conquest of Guatemala and the Maya region showed the might of the Spanish conquistadors under a ruthless battle leader, Pedro de Alvarado. Actually, Diego de Alvarado just figure in the story as a possible founder of the villa de San Salvador, capital of the current state of El Salvador. [citation needed], A second explanation for the absence of greater detail in Alvarado's letter is that Tecun Uman actually did battle with one of Alvarado's subordinates, by the name of Argueta. On 12 February 1524 Alvarado's Mexican allies were ambushed in the pass and driven back by K'iche' warriors but the Spanish cavalry charge that followed was a shock for the K'iche', who had never before seen horses. Alvarado accompanied his uncle on expeditions to the Americas, where he participated in the conquest of present-day Mexico, Guatemala and El Salvador. Career Expeditions with Pedro de Alvarado.

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